Politics and Society

Al-Naksa: Remembering the Six-Day War of 1967

mm
Al-Naksa: Remembering the Six-Day War of 1967

Egyptian fighter planes destroyed while still in their air base following a surprise attack by Israel.
Image Credit: Wikimedia

Fifty-five years ago today, Egypt’s popular Sawt Al-Arab (Voice of Arabs) radio station announced the country’s defeat to Israel – only days after falsely informing citizens that Israel had lost.

The Six-Day War, a surprise attack on Egypt, Syria, and Jordan, ended with Israel’s occupation of Sinai, the Golan Heights, Gaza, and the West Bank. Despite lasting less than a week, the legacy it leaves behind impacts Egypt, the Middle East, and the world to this day.

To Egyptians, the Six-Day War is better known as Al-Naksa – the Setback.

CONTEXT, CONFLICT, AND CLOSURE

The Six-Day War was the culmination of decades of political tension and military conflict between Israel and Arab states, inspired largely by the then-president of Egypt, Gamal Abdel Nasser.

For the greater part of the 20th century, Egypt had been the main actor in the conflict with Israel. In 1948, Egypt’s King Farouk led the first Arab-Israeli war, ultimately failing to expel the Israelis from once-Palestinian land. In 1956, Egypt faced tripartite aggression from Israel, England, and France over Nasser’s nationalization of the Suez Canal. In 1967, a decade’s worth of political tension reached a boiling point, eventually leading to the Six-Day War.

Despite a peaceful start to the 1960s, political tensions in the Middle East were resting on a tightrope. Egypt, along with Syria, Jordan, and Palestine, growing in confidence over the decade, hoped to bounce back from 1948. Meanwhile, Israel was in a state of constant alert, believing Egypt and its fellow Arab states threatened their existence.

Political tension and misinformation took hold of both sides, inevitably fanning the flames of war.

An inaccurate Soviet Union intelligence report informed Nasser that Israel was mobilizing its army at the northern border of Syria – where skirmishes had been occurring – for a full-scale invasion. In support of Syria, Egypt’s forces were ordered to mobilize in Sinai, near the Israeli borders.

Nasser also requested the withdrawal of the United Nations Emergency Forces in the process, which were in place as a part of the peace pact between Egypt and Israel after 1956.

The tipping point occurred on 22 May, 1967, when Egypt blocked Israeli shipments from the Straits of Tiran, a narrow sea passage that connects the Arabian peninsula with the Red Sea. Concerns were raised over the possibility of war, yet Nasser had promised he would not fire the first bullet.

Israel was not willing to wait on that promise, launching a preemptive attack on Egypt, Syria, and Jordan on 5 June.

A coordinated aerial attack on Egypt, known as Operation Focus, took the country by surprise, resulting in the loss of 200 aircraft. Unfortunately, Egypt would not recover from the attack in time to turn the tides.

Egypt attempted to make up for lost resources using ground warfare. Following intense conflicts, Egyptian Field Marshal Abdel Hakim Amer ordered a retreat, leaving the Sinai Peninsula and Gaza Strip in the hands of Israelis.

Syria would go on to lose the Golan Heights – still occupied by Israel to this day – while Jordan would also lose control of the West Bank and East Jerusalem.

On 10 June, the sixth day of the war, a ceasefire was settled under the auspices of the United Nations, abruptly ending the Six-Day War. It was later estimated that some 20,000 Arabs and 800 Israelis had died in just 132 hours of fighting.

CONSEQUENCES THAT LIVE ON

Al-Naksa was not the first war between Egypt and Israel. It was also not the last, nor the longest. Yet at only six days, it has generated geopolitical consequences that still reverberate in the Middle East to this day.

Egyptian President Nasser publicly announced his resignation the following day, but would assume office once more following calls for his return by Egyptians. Still, the country spiraled into domestic conspiracy.

In August 1967, Amer, who had ordered Egypt’s retreat, was arrested along with multiple other military officials for an alleged conspiracy to overthrow Nasser. A few months later, Amer was mysteriously found dead while under house arrest, assumed suicide, yet conspiracies continue to shroud his death.

Diplomatically, the war damaged ties between the Soviet Union and Egypt, which would indirectly ameliorate ties with America.

On the Israeli side of the aftermath, the country now occupied Sinai, Gaza, the West Bank, East Jerusalem, and the Golan Heights, tripling in size. Militarily, Israel’s attack and subsequent victory led to further warfare, as Egypt reclaimed Sinai later in the October War of 1973.

While Israel and Egypt would find peace a few years down the line, many Arab nations continue to deny the potential for peace to this day, citing Israel’s occupation and apartheid policies.

In the moment following the war, Israelis experienced a boost in national pride. In the long term, however, the country’s preemptive strikes would produce a ripple effect that would further isolate the state from its Arab neighbors.

To this day, the impact of the Six-Day War continues to deter potential Arab-Israeli peace negotiations. Despite the pressured return of the Gaza Strip in 2005, the West Bank, Golan Heights, and East Jerusalem continue to be occupied, ensuring political tensions remain present within the region.

A war that lasted six days, five and a half decades ago, forever changed Egypt’s outlook on war and foreign policy – six days that continue to plague the Middle East.

Al-Karnak: The Film That Revealed Egypt's Political Traumas
Feminism in Focus: Remembering Suhayr al-Qalamawi


Subscribe to our newsletter


Politics and Society
mm

With a deep interest in politics and society, Shereif is a journalist that chronicles Egypt’s ever-changing political climate – aided by his bachelor’s in Political Science and his ongoing master’s in Strategic Public Relations. On the side, Shereif works as a communications associate for a local consultancy. When he’s not working, you can find him playing chess, supporting Chelsea, or walking his dog.

More in Politics and Society

On Squash and Mental Health: Exclusive Interview With World Champion Nouran Gohar

Marina Makary1 December 2022

‘The Palestinian Cause Will Always Remain the Number One Arab Issue’: Sameh Shoukry

Marina Makary30 November 2022

Egypt Invited to Participate in Intergovernmental G20 Summit

Mona Abdou25 November 2022

Egyptian Parliament Health Committee Members to Donate Organs After Death

Egyptian Streets24 November 2022

EIB Offers Egypt €150 Million for Food Sector

Mona Abdou24 November 2022

40% of Egypt’s Public Investing is Green: Egyptian Cabinet

Mona Abdou23 November 2022

Egypt Issues Decree to Regulate the Price and Quantities of Rice

Egyptian Streets22 November 2022

Sisi Underscores Importance of Peace and Stability at African Union Summit

Mona Abdou22 November 2022