A Message From the People of Egypt’s South Sinai

A Message From the People of Egypt’s South Sinai
On the walls of an unfinished palace on Jebel Abbas Basha
On the walls of an unfinished palace on Jebel Abbas Basha

 Ramadan, a Bedouin man from St Katherine, sits by the fire. He’s wearing a faded green army jacket and a mauve shemagh, huddling to keep warm as an autumn wind rustles the trees.

We’re in his orchard – a beautiful cluster of almond, lemon and olive trees at the foot of Mount Sinai – where he lives with his family. It used to be a favourite stopping point for hikers in the mountains: they’d visit his orchard every week, drinking tea and buying fruit or handicrafts made by local women. Sometimes, they’d even stay overnight, sleeping in stone rooms and shelters between the trees. He has enough room for a hundred people. But it has been a long time since a hundred people have done anything here. The orchard is quiet and the rooms and shelters stand empty; a reminder of better, more optimistic times in the past.

Like many parts of Egypt, South Sinai has been in the grip of a crippling tourism crisis in recent years. Towns that once thrived with tourism – like Sharm el Sheikh, Dahab and Taba – have resembled ghost towns at times since the 2011 uprising.

But nowhere in South Sinai has suffered as much as the interior.

Here in the rugged mountains around the town of St Katherine – home mostly to Bedouin communities – times have been exceptionally tough. Without tourism – which has been woven so tightly into local livelihoods in recent decades – there is little else to fall back on in these harsh deserts; at least nothing in the modern economy.

Abu Omar, a local Bedouin guide on the hike, on Jebel Abbas Basha
Abu Omar, a local Bedouin guide on the hike, on Jebel Abbas Basha

The Bedouin say it’s the toughest crash they’ve ever known.

Harder and more prolonged than even the tourism crash which followed the bombings in the tourist resorts of Taba, Dahab and Sharm el Sheikh between 2004 and 2006.

But that the tourism crash has happened like this and – moreover – that it’s still happening shouldn’t be a surprise. Over the last few years, the Sinai has been portrayed as the setting of an Islamic insurgency, with a string of near-weekly stories about bombings, ambushes and extremism in the peninsula. There has been little meaningful distinction in the mainstream media between North Sinai – in which there are pockets of persistent unrest – and South Sinai, which has remained largely peaceful and quiet.

Clichés about the ‘Lawless Peninsula’, the ‘Troubled Frontier’ or the ‘Restive Province’, or stock sentences about ‘Sinai – the peninsula that has become increasingly lawless since the overthrow of Hosni Mubarak’ – have been recycled from one article to the next, as if 61,000 square kilometres of desert could be talked about in simple, singular terms. As if the Sinai – North and South – was a plain uniformity.

The Sinai has been portrayed as Egypt’s proverbial Heart of Darkness. And government advisories about the Sinai have only reinforced such an image.

Two hikers, watching the sun go down from Jebel Abbas Basha
Two hikers, watching the sun go down from Jebel Abbas Basha

Travel warnings have been issued by most Western governments about South Sinai. And even when these have been removed for coastal resorts – like Sharm el Sheikh and Dahab – they have remained in place for the interior. These warnings don’t only lend credence to the perception that South Sinai is a dangerous place to visit. They make it harder for tourists to get travel insurance, creating real, practical obstacles to tourism.

Many deterrents have grown around tourism in South Sinai in recent years.

For local Bedouin communities, these narratives about their homeland read almost like they’re about another place. As if they’re written to conform to an unquestionable truth established by previous stories in the media; or as if the drive to theoretical neatness and a single-peninsula theory is prioritised above the actual reality on the ground.

The Sinai has been chronically misrepresented for years.

Sheikh Ahmed Abu Rashid of the Jebeleya tribe near St Katherine
Sheikh Ahmed Abu Rashid of the Jebeleya tribe near St Katherine

Recently, a community group in St Katherine – led by Bedouin figures of the Jebeleya tribe – met to discuss ways of challenging this ongoing misrepresentation and connecting with the outside world in a more accurate, positive way, on their own terms; of doing something to challenge perceptions of the Sinai and encourage the return of tourism to the area.

Out of this meeting came the idea of arranging a special hike. A hike that would bring people together from all over the world to send out a message about safety in the region.

Last weekend – after a solid month of planning – the hike became a reality.

More than 60 people gathered in the town of St Katherine. They came from mainland Egypt and countries as far away as Austria, Chile, Russia, the UK and New Zealand. There were Bedouin from different tribes of the Sinai, as well as families with children as young as six. Together, the hikers climbed one of the biggest mountains in the region – Jebel Abbas Basha – and slept in an old Bedouin orchard, walking out the next day through a spectacular gorge with water pools.

They came to support the local Bedouin community – who ran the hike from start to finish – and to explode the narrative about South Sinai as a place of danger. They walked deliberately in the area Western governments mark on the map as the danger zone.

Credit: Khalid Abdulla
Credit: Khalid Abdulla

Together, they united around a single message: SOUTH SINAI IS SAFE.

Before the hike, some people decided not to come for safety concerns. Others questioned why it was still going ahead after the recent bombing in North Sinai, saying it was a foolhardy risk.

To the contrary though, the hike was never at risk: safety was at the forefront of every consideration about it and it went ahead only because the organisers felt completely sure it was secure. Judgements about safety weren’t made by outside commentators: they were made by the most influential figures in the local Bedouin community. Which is to say, by the people who understand the region in its own cultural language, better than anybody.

When it’s seen through Bedouin eyes, the Sinai is a different place.

Glance at the Sinai on a modern political atlas, and you’ll see a land of neat, straight-line borders; a single peninsula, usually shaded a single colour. With Bedouin eyes, it’s much more complex; a patchwork of small territories, each belonging to a different Bedouin tribe.

The tribe is the major unit in Bedouin society and its importance is hard to overstate.

Children as young as six joined the hike, sleeping out in the mountains
Children as young as six joined the hike, sleeping out in the mountains

Each Bedouin tribe has its own sense of history, identity and independence. Sometimes tribes even have their own dialect and cultural traditions. Each tribe was forged through centuries of shared survival experiences in one of the hardest desert environments on earth and the bonds that hold its members together are extraordinarily strong. The tribe is a grouping that commands an exceptional sense of loyalty for the Bedouin; one that trumps anything else.

There are over twenty Bedouin tribes in the Sinai, each functioning much like a mini state. And, like any sort of state, each Bedouin tribe feels a strong emotional connection to its territory; to the ancestral lands in which it has lived through the centuries.

To outside eyes, familiar with icons of modern security – like the army and police – the Sinai might look insecure. It might look like a land of open deserts and bare mountainsides into which anybody could wander unchecked. But it doesn’t work like that.

The Bedouin have their own forms of tribal security, their own ways of watching the land.

It isn’t done by people who wear uniforms, who address each other in ranks and take home a salary at the end of each month. Ordinary Bedouin do it, perhaps a shepherdess herding goats, an ibex hunter looking for his prey, the resident of a Bedouin village or a wayfarer passing through the mountains. Each has a firm sense of loyalty to the tribe and a vested interest in protecting its territory and each watches it carefully, distinguishing outsiders from members of the tribe easily. Information about who’s where gets passed around fast – even in remote tracts of the mountains – and any concerns are raised quickly with the Sheikhs.

Waterpools in Wadi Shagg, near Jebel Abbas Basha
Waterpools in Wadi Shagg, near Jebel Abbas Basha

This is especially the case in the interior areas of South Sinai, where the Bedouin remain the only – or at least the majority – inhabitants of the land, and where their traditional security systems remain strong. Down on the coasts, where the Bedouin have been mixed into more diffuse urban societies, traditional ways of monitoring the land have been weakened.

The coasts might look the safest, with all their checkpoints and security.

Actually though, the historical record tells another story. The interior parts of South Sinai have never seen an attack against tourists. They’re said to be the most hazardous by governments but – statistically – they’re the safest. And they always have been.

Camping in an ancient Bedouin orchard in Wadi Zawatin
Camping in an ancient Bedouin orchard in Wadi Zawatin

The Bedouin in the mountains of South Sinai know who’s where and what they’re doing and – for this reason – the hike went ahead in the full knowledge the area was safe.

And it wasn’t just this. Travellers accompanied by the Bedouin have an extraordinary degree of protection in Bedouin lands. Tribal law still holds strong across these parts of the Sinai, regulating Bedouin behaviour to a remarkable degree. The tourist kidnaps which began in South Sinai in 2012 – which it’s important to state were never the sort of militant kidnaps seen elsewhere in the Middle East and which were brought to an end by inter-tribal Bedouin meetings – all involved tourists who were travelling without Bedouin escorts, which is no coincidence. This isn’t to justify the kidnaps; it’s simply to underline the weight Bedouin law still carries in regulating these remote, interior parts of the Sinai.

Nasr Mansour, the chief Bedouin guide, surrounded by hikers on Jebel Abbas Basha
Nasr Mansour, the chief Bedouin guide, surrounded by hikers on Jebel Abbas Basha

The organisers of the hike knew it’d be safe for other reasons too. Ultimately though, it came down to the same thing: local, Bedouin knowledge about the region.

Narratives that portray South Sinai as one half of a wholly dangerous peninsula are invariably written by outside commentators. The Sinai isn’t the same as mainland Egypt – or anywhere else – and it can’t be understood using the same frames of reference. Unfortunately, the Sinai is a place whose story is told by virtually everybody except its own Bedouin communities. If it could be summed up with a catch-all cliché it wouldn’t be the Troubled Frontier, the Restive Province or the Lawless Peninsula: it would be the misunderstood one.

That the Sinai has so few home-grown Bedouin journalists to tell its story is a major loss to its cause. So too, that it doesn’t have a community of bi-lingual Bedouin bloggers and social media activists who can challenge mainstream narratives where they appear online, at least not one that can compare with mainland Egypt, where bloggers have challenged mainstream news – in a language the world can understand – so effectively in the last few years. Unfortunately, with the Sinai, many stories go unchallenged for these reasons.

Layla Farid, the youngest hiker of the event, on a camel in Wadi Zawatin
Layla Farid, the youngest hiker of the event, on a camel in Wadi Zawatin

Hopefully the hike in the mountains around St Katherine will go some way – even if just a small way – to showing that South Sinai is not the danger zone it’s made out to be. To showing the region in a more positive light and emphasising that there are alternative – and better – ways of understanding it than what underpins the bulk of what’s written. People who joined the hike have already shared hundreds of pictures on Facebook, Instagram and Twitter which – as much as sending a message to the world about safety – might showcase the beauty of these mountains and revive tourism on other grounds.

The more people who visit, the more it will become clear mainstream narratives don’t fit the place they’re written about. The more the name of Sinai can be reclaimed and coupled with positive associations and the more things might begin to change for its local Bedouin communities, whose livelihoods and name have suffered through misinformed narratives about the Sinai for too long.

Egyptian Streets 3

BEN HOFFLER is a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society and an author of Trailblazer’s Sinai: The Trekking Guide. He has walked thousands of kilometres in South Sinai in recent years and blogs about the region at

HIKING IN THE SINAI – Sinai is Safe was organised by Faraj Mahmoud of Desert Fox Safari. He is a central figure in the Bedouin community and one of the officials in St Katherine through whom treks can be organised. You can see his website at

HIKING CLUBS – The Egyptian Hiking Club is a non-profit hiking club with a Sinai focus, whose founder Kareem Samy helped organise Sinai is Safe. It bring hikers together every month in the Sinai and you can get the latest updates at

OTHER RESOURCES – My blog Go Tell It on the Mountain – – has information about the mountains of the Sinai. You can find further information on the website of my book at and

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  • Annette Barrow

    This is an excellent article and so positive message from the people of Egypt of the South Sinai. The distinction between the North Sinai and South Sinai has been very clearly described and differentiated in this article. It is very positive and reassuring for the South Sinai Peninsula and for tourists of how safe, peaceful and quiet this regions remains in the tourist areas of Dahab, Nuweiba, Taba and the biblical and sacred lands of Saint Catherine.

    I hope that in the future the indigenous bedouins of the Sinai will have much more
    opportunities to learn and develop more bi-lingual and writing skills to work towards becoming the finest bloggers and social media activists and authors, so they can enhance their abilities and skills to write their own stories and articles in a more journalistic way. As always in life to do this the Sinai Bedouins need help and hope they will be given this help. It is vital within this world of modern technological communications that the local Sinai Bedouins are supported by the local governance with funding to initiate a Learning and Developing Programme to give them the opportunities to learn and develop professional grammatical writing and bi-lingual skills so that they are fully equipped with the necessary tools to feel confident to be able to constructively challenge any mainstream narratives as bi-lingual Bedouin Bloggers that appear on line in a language that the world can understand. The Sinai Bedouins must be given these equal rights in order to ensure that they do not feel disadvantaged or less equal to their fellow countrymen of mainland Egypt who have been equipped with the necessary tools to challenge mainstream narratives effectively as Bloggers and social media activists. This will also give the Sinai Bedouins full autonomy and ownership of their own written blogs and articles that are being disseminated to the wider audience across Egypt and to the outside world. It may also prevent any
    interference from activists and other social media bloggers and opportunists outside of bedouin society who may misrepresent or misinterpret stories written about all aspects of bedouin society and way of life. It is time for change and the Sinai Bedouins must no longer suffer any future damages to their reputation, communities and livelihoods as a result of anyone’s misinformed narratives about the Sinai and bedouin society. The Sinai name will be reclaimed with greater positivity to bring greater social and economic stability and wealth to the local bedouin communities and I hope that there will be much more prosperity and positive things ahead for the Sinai Bedouins.

    I feel blessed and honoured to live in a Sinai Bedouin settlement of Sharm El Sheikh, the Bedouin Planet of Sharks Bay that has brought me so much safety, joy, peace and happiness to be surrounded by such natural beauty in authentic bedouin style and hospitality. The Sinai Bedouins know best because they are simply the best and noblest of people you will meet of the South Sinai Peninsula and tourist and residents alike are given a once in a lifetime opportunity and experience to embrace their unique vibrant culture, way of life and kind and warm hospitality. I hope that the worst period of the crippling tourist crisis is over for the people and bedouin communities of the Sinai and tourism will start to flourish for all the local bedouin communities and businesses of this region. I can personally vouch that the whole region of the South Sinai Peninsula is safe and safe for everyone to visit.

    Inshallah, I will be awaiting and looking forward to reading fully authentic blogs and stories created by the Bedouins in their capacity as Sinai Bedouin Bloggers and social media activities in the very near future.

  • perpetuallybored

    The bedouin want tourists for their money, because their government (which they want no part of anyway) haven’t provided them with any other opportunities. Yet with so many destinations available worldwide it’s not surprise the tourists stay away. Not because it’s necessarily dangerous, but because there are other places they can go for less hassle, from start to finish. The solution to this problem is not to appeal to tourists to return without making any other changes in the country.

    • Annette Barrow

      I would like to address the comments you have made in a constructive manner of which I do respect but I don’t agree with comments that the Bedouins only want tourists for their money and tourists stay away because of the hassle. The bedouins do not cause any tourists hassle in the South Sinai Peninsula and it is quite the opposite of what you have stated about this and the money. The Sinai Bedouins are not only about money, in fact money is not of great importance to Bedouins. Money is irrelvant to Sinai Bedouins as they place more importance on social traditions and preservation of their unique culture and way of life. The bedouins are no different than anyone else in the world who need to make money for their social and economic survival to help them build stronger, safer and prosperous communities so that they can have a better quality of life. They live in a region that is developed for tourism so it is only natural that their income and livelihoods will come from tourism. The Sinai Bedouins are some of the most kindest, unselfish, and humble people you will meet in life and they are by no means greedy people. I agree there are many destinations for people to visit worldwide but tourists return time and time again to the South Sinai to discover and experience the many bedouin tourist attractions of the region and to embrace their unique traditional culture and way of life. There are a number of reasons why people have stayed away from the Sinai during the unrest of the revolution but Egypt is now rebuilding it tourism industry and taking robust measures to address all issues and making many necessary changes that will make the South Sinai Peninsula and Egypt much more attractive to all tourists. The issues of any disagreements between the government and the bedouins does not have anything to do with tourism and it does not play any part in preventing tourists from coming to visit the Sinai. Tourists are returning and will continue to flock to all regions of the South Sinai Peninsula mystical lands, a heaven of tranquility, comfort, natural beauty, with its abundance of vibrant marine life, rich coral reefs, majestic mountains, biblical sites, ancient egyptian history, bedouin culture, vibrant nightlife and entertainment, mouthwatering cuisine, golden beaches, and all year round hot climate, regardless of whatever changes are made to the country.

      • perpetuallybored

        The hassle begins when you arrive at the airport. I’m not saying the Bedouin are bad people, I just disagree with the onus which the article seems to put on tourists to take responsibility for the bedouins’ situation. And let’s not overstate the case regarding Sinai – it’s a lovely place to be sure but vibrant nightlife and mouthwatering cuisine do not spring to mind when I think of the numerous holidays I’ve spent there. I were after that I would take a holiday on the beach in Thailand.

        • Annette Barrow

          If the hassle you have experienced is occurring
          at the airport then this is something the egyptian ministry for tourism and the
          security forces must address as clearly
          this not the way to welcome tourists when they arrive to the South Sinai
          Peninsula. As I say I would be very
          surprised to find any hassle to tourists
          was caused by bedouins. I don’t really feel the article has put any
          onus on the tourists to feel sorry for the bedouins. It is merely unfolding a very frank detailed story
          of the real life situations and hardship of not only the sinai bedouins but all
          people of the South Sinai Peninsula who have fallen victims of the worse crash of the tourism
          industry the region has ever known in
          recent years since the uprising in 2011.
          As tourism is the main source of income for everyone in the region this
          crippling crisis has caused much finaincial hardship to the economy in the
          region and the livelihood of the commuities.
          The article is also expressing
          how local Bedouins, the natives of the Sinai feel about previous stories in the media which
          do not appear to reflect the true reality of what actually happens on the
          ground and these narratives read more like they are about another place as
          opposed to their homeland of the South Sinai.
          It is important that accurate and positive articles such as this excellent
          article are written to connect the Sinai and local bedouins with the outside
          world so that they challenge any ongoing misrepresentation to put the record
          straight about the Sinai which can have a very positive and encouraging affect
          on tourism to the region. Personal choices and opinions of holiday destinations can differ greatly and the entertainment and nightlife in the Sinai differs in contrast to Thailand’s night scene of Go-Go Bars, Ladyboys Cabaret shows and Sex shows. Egypt is a much more conservative tourist destination steeped in a wealth of ancient history, culture and heritage.

  • Aimadigithat

    islam makes a mess where ever it goes.

    • adib

      You wrong

      • Aimadigithat



Ben is the author of Trailblazer’s Sinai: The Trekking Guide and a Fellow of the UK's Royal Geographical Society. He is based between Egypt and England and has walked thousands of kilometres in the Sinai in recent years.

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